A look at why Nashville, Tennessee is a hub for human trafficking and the face of trafficking within the Volunteer State.

Working for an anti-trafficking organization based in Nashville, one of the most frequent questions I get asked is: “Is human trafficking a big issue in this area?”

My answer is always: “yes, unfortunately.”

Often, this surprises people. Although rapidly growing, Nashville is comparatively a small city. It is vibrant and creative and characterized by good food, great music and friendly people. All of these things about Nashville are true. But the thing about human trafficking is that it is everywhere, even in the places we call home.


The Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) recently reported that human trafficking is the second-highest rising crime in the state. This type of exploitation can begin in childhood or adolescence, when youth are especially vulnerable. The National Human Trafficking Hotline also reported 180 cases from Tennessee in 2019. Despite common misconceptions, the Polaris Project’s statistics show that the majority of trafficked individuals in the country are U.S. citizens, not foreign nationals. It is a harsh reality that the young people in our lives may be the same ones vulnerable to traffickers. Additionally, human trafficking often does not align with over-dramatized media portrayals. Manipulation is more common than abduction, and most often, a trafficker is a family member, friend or individual a victim already knows. 

A problem of this magnitude must first be understood before it can be solved. It is for this reason that I will outline the reasons Nashville is a hub for human trafficking, as well as what exactly trafficking looks like in the Volunteer State.


According to the TBI, human trafficking cases have been reported in every county in Tennessee. A large amount of them are reported in Davidson and Williamson Counties. There are a few primary reasons for this:

The first reason is related to transportation and location. Nashville is one of only six U.S. cities where 3 major interstates converge. Additionally, you can reach 75% of the U.S. market within a 2-hour flight time from Nashville, making it a strategic point for movement around the country. Nashville is also in close proximity to Atlanta – a large metropolitan area known for high amounts of human trafficking – and this adds to the transportation of victims throughout the state. 

The second reason that Nashville is a popular spot for human trafficking is its large tourism and sporting industries. Studies have shown that popular events that are characterized by large influxes of people (like the Super Bowl, for example) typically increase the demand for sexual exploitation. The presence of both the Nashville Predators and Tennessee Titans, as well as events such as CMA Fest, the NFL Draft, and Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival can drive a demand for trafficked services and make it harder for traffickers to be identified and caught.  


These are some of the underlying factors contributing to trafficking in Nashville, but what is more important are the stories of those who have experienced its heartbreak. Each year since 2012, the majority of victims reported to the National Human Trafficking Hotline from Tennessee have been victims of sex trafficking. Some of the top venues for sex trafficking in the state are online ads, hotels and motels, escort services and truck stops. Other labor trafficking industries include domestic work and agriculture, although less data is available for these cases.

Because trafficking looks different from case to case, a specific trafficker or victim profile is difficult to construct. Often, traffickers contact youth through the Internet or social media, especially with the impact of COVID-19. In the case of a 12-year-old victim who was trafficked from Texas to Tennessee in 2016, however, the trafficker simply offered the young girl a ride home. In other instances, traffickers are actually family members, close friends or ‘boyfriends.’

Additionally, victims can come from any socio-economic status, race, ethnic group or family situation. For example, trafficking still occurs in Williamson County, the wealthiest county in Tennessee. The one thing that all trafficking victims have in common, however, is vulnerability. Vulnerability can be defined as a simple need for love and acceptance, a toxic family dynamic, or a history of abuse. On both statewide and national levels, the most vulnerable populations are foster, runaway and homeless youth and those in the LGBTQI+ community. It is important to remember, however, that many victims do not fit into these categories. The one thing each trafficking case has in common is a relationship where trust is gained and then later exploited. 

Because most of the trafficking cases reported in Tennessee do involve sex trafficking, it is important to also examine those purchasing sex from trafficked individuals. A trafficking operation in Kingsport, Tennessee targeted individuals seeking to purchase illicit sex from minors. Nearly a dozen men faced felony charges following the investigation, and those arrested included a youth leader, coach, volunteer firefighter and an Uber driver. Demand is the reason that trafficking persists, and it does not always take the form most people envision. It is important to move beyond these misconceptions to have a better informed perspective on trafficking, as well as how it occurs.


Despite the difficult reality of trafficking within Tennessee, there is positivity amidst the darkness. Tennessee is ranked at the top in the nation for our legislation and anti-trafficking efforts, according to Shared Hope International. The Tennessee Bureau of Investigation operates a state-wide hotline for citizens to call with information or if they need assistance. Additionally, Polaris operates a national hotline that is operated 24 hours a day and is available in 200 different languages. Both of these resources provide a safe space for reporting tips and asking for help. Finally, Free for Life International provides emergency services to Nashville-area survivors on a case by case basis. The organization is also equipping the local community to be informed and active citizens in the fight for freedom.

Common red flags of human trafficking to be on the lookout for include:

  • Individuals who appear to be runaway or homeless youth
  • Possible sex work scenarios 
  • Individuals who have little control over their money or movement
  • Individuals who display signs of trauma or abuse 
  • Individuals who display distinct branding marks or tattoos (these typically include a pimp’s name and/or money signs and are commonly located on a victim’s neck, chest, abdomen or forearms). 

By staying aware, you can transform a life. Each informed citizen can truly be the difference between freedom and slavery for a person in need.






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Free for Life International is a registered 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization.